A number of methods have been proposed and discussed for treatment of solid waste. Biological method is preferred due to recycle of organics. Of the several biological methods discussed, only composting has been developed beyond the pilot stage thus far. The principle, process, and technology of this method has been documented in details with respect to techniques, benefits to soil, constraints, applications, economics, and public health aspects.
Composting has been used as a means of recycling organic matter back into the soil to improve soil structure and fertility. The composting process has received much attention in recent years because of pollution concerns and the search for environmentally sound methods for treating solid waste. Waste volumes continue to rise, which leads to loss of resources and increased environmental risks.
Open dumping and sanitary landfill is a major method for waste disposal, the Land filling of biodegradable waste is proven to contribute to environmental degradation, mainly through the production of highly polluting leachate and formation of methane gas. Composting can stabilize solid waste for landfill; and also can help volume and mass reduction of solid waste returning organics to the natural cycle. The principal techniques used in Municipal Solid Waste (MCW) composting mainly are turned windrow approaches and open aerated systems.
A right combination of bacteria is required for rapid bio-degradation of the organics to form compost of the most desired quality. Biomax offers a combination of over 17 different bacteria for this purpose.
WASTE WATER TREATMENT
Industrial effluents may contain a variety of pollutants which if let out untreated in natural waters, may lead to health hazards. Some examples of such pollutants are a) Organic compounds which deplete oxygen if discharged into natural water bodies and lead to “oxygen demand” b) Inorganic nutrients which stimulate excessive algal growth in a water body. C) Nitrogen species which deplete oxygen in surface water (NH4+) or contaminate groundwater if distributed on land (NO3-) d) Pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. e) Specific “emerging contaminants” (e.g., pharmaceuticals, “personal care products”, flame retardants).
Organics in the waste water result in high BOD, COD, TDS and MLSS. They also release odorous substances like H2S, Methane, Ammonia, Acetates, Fatty acids, etc causing odor problems in the vicinity. Quicker removal of organics helps lowering of the BOD, COD and other parameters to the permissible limits as per the norms set by the Pollution Control Board. It also helps odor control. The traditional system consisted of “anaerobic” digestion followed by “aerobic” digestion with activated sludge. Though newer technologies have been developed in last couple of decades for biotreatment of industrial waste water, the activated sludge treatment is still the method of choice due to low costs of installation and maintenance. However, in many cases the efficiency of the ETP is inadequate in spite of well designed system of the right size.
Biomax has developed unique new concept for enhancing the efficiency of the hitherto sluggishly performing ETP. A well balanced combination of a number of hydrolytic enzyme and a high performance combination of microbial cultures is offered by Biomax to stabilize the ETP in a short span of less than a week. A simultaneous increase in the yields of Biogas plant is an additional benefit of the system.